At the urging of the caesar Galerius, in 303 Diocletian began the last major persecution of Christians in the Roman Empire, resulting in the destruction of churches and the torture and execution of Christians who refused to sacrifice to the Roman gods. Diocles, having adopted the name Diocletianus, entered history like so many of those emperors who emerged from the shadows through force of arms, brought to power by the army. Diocleciano (Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano) nació cerca de Saloma (actual Croacia), en la costa de Dalmacia, en el año 244. Diocletian was an adherent of the traditional Roman religion involving worship of the pantheon of deities including Jove (Jupiter), Mars, Apollo, and others. Like many of those who preceded him, after entering the military, he rose quickly through the ranks, eventually becoming a member of an elite corps within the Illyrian army. La bipolarización de la autoridad imperial dio buenos resultados, pues Maximiano reprimió el movimiento bagauda surgido en las Galias, mientras Diocleciano recuperaba Armenia, aprovechando en beneficio propio las divisiones internas de los persas. Recuperado de Con la aparición de estos colaboradores de jerarquía inferior, la dirección del imperio quedó en manos de una tretrarquía, forma de gobierno que permitía, por una parte, asegurar la unidad territorial y, por otra, solucionar los problemas de cada región con celeridad y eficacia. Acclaimed emperor on November 17, 284, Diocletian possessed real power only in those countries that were dominated by his army (i.e., in Asia Minor and possibly Syria). As Roman emperor for more than 20 years (284–305 CE), Diocletian brought stability, security, and efficient government to the Roman state after nearly half a century of chaos. Nació en Dioclea, cerca de Salona, en Dalmacia, el año 245, su nombre completo era Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano. With the death of Aper, however, Diocletian was relieved of an eventual competitor and, retroactively, his act had been granted sacred meaning. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. Diocleciano nació en Dalmacia de muy baja cuna. His reign is also noted for the last great persecution of the Christians. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. His father was a scribe or the emancipated slave of a senator called Anullinus. He instituted lasting administrative, military, and financial reforms and introduced a short-lived system of power sharing between four rulers, two augusti and two caesars (the tetrarchy). Nothing is known of his wife, Prisca, other than what the contemporary Latin Christian writer Lactantius Firmianus says in his De mortibus persecutorum, which is of debatable veracity. Nacido en el seno de una humilde familia iliria, Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano emprendió una carrera militar que, sin ser excesivamente brillante, le permitió convertirse primero en comandante de la guardia imperial y más tarde en cónsul. Here again, rhetoric has obscured the real events. Sin embargo, los conflictos políticos y sociales en el imperio iban en aumento, razón por la que, en mayo del 293, Diocleciano vinculó al poder en calidad de césares a otros dos militares: Constancio Cloro para Occidente y Galerio para Oriente. el var meses = new Array ("enero","febrero","marzo","abril","mayo","junio","julio","agosto","septiembre","octubre","noviembre","diciembre"); Barcelona (España). The only definite fact known about Diocletian during this period is that he was among those army chiefs whom Carinus gathered, together with the Illyrians, to fight against the Persians. Desaparecido Carino, coemperador y hermano de Numeriano, el Senado le reconoció la dignidad imperial un año más tarde, en el 285. Gold coin depicting Roman emperor Diocletian. Llevó a cabo la persecución más sangrienta de los cristianos en el Imperio Romano. Suo padre, uno scriba, gli aveva appena insegnato a leggere e scrivere, ma l’educazione del giovane era ben lontana da quella dei rampolli delle famiglie aristocratiche, che ricevevano invece la formazione classica, la cosiddetta “paideia”. After having put down a revolt by Julianus, a troop commander in Pannonia, whom he attacked and killed near Verona, Carinus proceeded to attack Diocletian. And it was true, too, that he did not wish to wait much longer for the boar to come. An indecisive battle near the confluence of the Margus (modern Morava) and Danube rivers, not far from present-day Belgrade, would have been a defeat for Diocletian had Carinus not been assassinated by a group of soldiers. Like his predecessors, Diocletian promoted the cult of the emperor but also explicitly associated himself and his co-augustus, Maximian, with Jove and Hercules, respectively. (Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano; Salona, actual Croacia, h. 245 - Spalato, hoy Split, id., 316) Emperador romano (284-305). Tras el asesinato del emperador Numeriano, en el 284, Diocleciano dio muerte a Arrio Aper, el presunto homicida, y fue proclamado emperador por el ejército de Asia Menor. Professor of Latin Language and Literature, University of Besançon, France. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He laid the foundation for the Byzantine Empire in the East and shored up the decaying empire in the West. Galerius, who succeeded Diocletian as augustus in 305, continued the persecution until 311. Cómo citar este artículo:Ruiza, M., Fernández, T. y Tamaro, E. (2004). Black Friday Sale! ¿Desea reproducir alguna biografía en su web. Paralelamente, Diocleciano llevó a cabo una serie de importantes reformas internas que perseguían centralizar el poder, racionalizar la administración, sanear la economía y reorganizar el ejército. Up to the time of his accession, Diocletian had lived most of his life in military camps. Save 50% off a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. In reality, Numerian had died either a natural death or from a stroke of lightning. Se enroló en el ejército y pasó los primeros años de su vida en incesantes campañas a lo largo de la frontera del Danubio, en la Galia y luchando contra los persas. Thus, in midsummer of 285, Diocletian became master of the empire. El índice del trabajo es: breve biografía de Diocleciano; la persecución y la bibliografía. Diocletian, Roman emperor (284–305 CE) who restored efficient government to the empire after the near anarchy of the 3rd century. Diocles, who would become known to history as Diocletian, was born of humble origins on December 22, 245 CE in the Balkan province of Dalmatia. The gens name Aurelius did not appear until March 1, 286—that is, until after his accession. His reorganization of the fiscal, administrative, and military machinery of the empire laid the foundation for the Byzantine Empire in the East and temporarily shored up the decaying empire in the West. Updates? Aper’s guilt was accepted by contemporaries, but it was also true that a prediction had been made to Diocletian previously, telling him that he would become emperor on the day he killed a boar (Latin: aper). En detrimento del pujante cristianismo, hizo obligatorio el culto a Júpiter como elemento cohesionador del imperio, lo cual provocó una cruenta persecución contra los cristianos entre los años 303 y 311. Así, por ejemplo, recortó la autoridad del Senado, transformó las 57 provincias existentes en 96 y las agrupó en 12 diócesis, separó en cada provincia el gobierno civil del militar para impedir las usurpaciones imperiales y estableció nuevos impuestos, tanto territoriales como personales (capitación). Diocleciano fue un destacado soldado de procedencia iliria, el cual se abrió […] His reign is also noted for the last great persecution of the Christians. He designated Aper as the criminal and killed him personally. Militar y emperador romano, recordado por sus acciones contra los profesantes del cristianismo, religión que vio como un peligro para el imperio romano. Breve biografía de Diocleciano. Omissions? He received the name Diocles first, then the name Valerius, after the name of his daughter, Valeria, who married Galerius in 293. From these it appears that he was tall and thin, with a large forehead, a short, strong nose, a hard mouth, and a determined chin. Procedente de una humilde familia iliria se inició tempranamente en la vida militar participando en numerosas campañas, en la frontera danubiana, en la Galia y combatiendo a los persas, que le permitieron convertirse primero en comandante de la guardia imperial y más tarde en cónsul. Se reservó para sí el gobierno de la mitad oriental y la dignidad de augusto Iovius, la cual, al vincularlo a Júpiter, la principal divinidad romana, le confería un poder superior al de Maximiano. En Biografías y Vidas. Diocleciano (Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano; Salona, actual Croacia, h. 245 - Spalato, hoy Split, id., 316) Emperador romano (284-305). Little is known of his origins. Diocletian, Latin in full Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus, original name Diocles, (born 245 ce, Salonae?, Dalmatia [now Solin, Croatia]—died 316, Salonae), Roman emperor (284–305 ce) who restored efficient government to the empire after the near anarchy of the 3rd century. Diocleciano (244-311) fue un emperador romano que gobernó entre 284 y 305. In 284, during that campaign, Numerian, Carinus’s brother and coemperor, was found dead in his litter, and his adoptive father, the praetorian prefect Aper, was accused of having killed him in order to seize power. Así, Diocleciano, que había fijado su capital en Nicomedia, se ocupó de la parte de Oriente; Galerio, que residía en Sirmio, atendió los asuntos de las zonas situadas al sur del Danubio, desde los Alpes hasta el Mar Negro; Maximiano, que alternaba residencia entre Milán y Aquileia, tenía a su cargo África, Hispania e Italia; y, por último, Constancio Cloro vigilaba desde Tréveris a las Galias y Britania. Biografía de Diocleciano Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano (244 d. C – 316 d. C) Nació en Salona, Dalmacia (actual Croacia). . Premium Membership is now 50% off! Diocletian’s biography has been obscured by legends, rhetoric, the dubiousness of documents, and the hostility of his adversaries. The rest of the empire was obedient to Numerian’s brother Carinus. What is known of his appearance is based on coin effigies and on sculptures. var f=new Date();document.write(f.getDate() + " de " + meses[f.getMonth()] + " de " + f.getFullYear());. Dedicado a la vida contemplativa, que sólo abandonó para intentar solucionar sin éxito las disputas existentes entre los tetrarcas (307), murió en su retiro de Spalato en el 316. Diocletian’s complete name, found in official inscriptions, is given as Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). These may have been either in Gaul, as reported in the Historia Augusta, or in Moesia. Al contrario, grande era la vitalità e profondo il carisma personale di quell’uomo di umili origini, nato presumibilmente il 22 dicembre del 244 a Salona, in Dalmazia, in una famiglia di origini oscure. function citapers() { var x = document.getElementsByTagName("title"); document.getElementById("perscita").innerHTML = x[0].innerHTML;} When Diocletian, acclaimed as emperor by his soldiers, appeared for the first time in public dressed in the imperial purple, he declared himself innocent of Numerian’s murder. Nacido en el seno de una humilde familia iliria, Cayo Aurelio Valerio Diocleciano emprendió una carrera militar que, sin ser excesivamente brillante, le permitió convertirse primero en comandante de la guardia imperial y más tarde en cónsul. Author of. function citaurl() { var x = location.href; document.getElementById("urlcita").innerHTML = x;} Aquel mismo año, a fin de acabar con las usurpaciones militares y las tendencias centrífugas que amenazaban con desmembrar el imperio, Diocleciano decidió asociar al poder a otro oficial ilirio de su confianza, Maximiano, a quien cedió el control de la mitad occidental del imperio, primero con el título de césar y después con el de augusto Herculius (286). La enciclopedia biográfica en línea. En ambas partes del imperio los tetrarcas obtuvieron grandes victorias militares: aplastaron la rebelión de Carausio en Britania (296), acabaron con las revueltas sociales de Egipto (297) y fijaron la frontera romana en el río Tigris, tras derrotar a los persas (298). https://www.britannica.com/biography/Diocletian, Ancient History Encyclopedia - Biography of Diocletian, Catholic Encyclopedia - Biography of Diocletian. Or he may have been a member of the Roman emperor Carinus’s bodyguard. Later, his abilities were rewarded when he became an army commander in Moesia, a northern Balkan province located just west of the Black Sea. En el 305, ya enfermo, renunció a sus responsabilidades políticas, abdicó en favor de Galerio y obligó a Maximiano a hacer otro tanto en beneficio de Constancio Cloro, padre del futuro emperador Constantino el Grande. window.onload=function comocitar() {citapers();citaurl();}
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